RULE CR44.1 REPRESENTATION OF INDIGENT DEFENDANTS


RULE CR44.1

REPRESENTATION OF INDIGENT DEFENDANTS

 

Under the Criminal Justice Act (CJA) of 1964, as amended, 18 U.S.C. § 3006A, and Guide to  Judiciary Policy (Guide), Volume 7A, the judges of the United States District Court for the District of Kansas adopt this Plan, as approved by the circuit, for furnishing representation in federal court for any person financially unable to obtain adequate representation in accordance with the CJA.

  1. Statement of

The objectives of this Plan are:

  • To attain the goal of equal justice under the law for all persons;
  • to provide all eligible persons with timely appointed counsel services that are consistent with the best practices of the legal profession, are cost-effective, and protect the independence of the defense function so that the rights of individual defendants are safeguarded and enforced; and
  • to particularize the requirements of the CJA, the USA Patriot Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005 (recodified at 18 S.C. § 3599), and Guide, Vol. 7A, in a way that meets the needs of this district.

This Plan must therefore be administered so that those accused of a crime, or otherwise eligible for services under the CJA, will not be deprived of the right to counsel, or any element of representation necessary to an effective defense, due to lack of financial resources.

(B)       Compliance.

  • The court, its clerk, the Office of the Federal Public Defender and private attorneys appointed under the CJA must comply with Guide, 7A, approved by the Judicial Conference of the United States or its Committee on Defender Services, and with this Plan.
  • The CJA Resource Counsel will ensure that a current copy of the CJA Plan is made available on the Kansas Federal Public Defender website and the Court’s website, and provided to CJA counsel upon the attorney’s designation as a member of the CJA panel of private attorneys (CJA Panel). A current copy of Guide, 7A will also be available on the Kansas Federal Public Defender website.
  • Representation. “Representation” includes counsel and investigative, expert, and other
  • Appointed Attorney. “Appointed attorney” is an attorney designated to represent a financially eligible person under the CJA and this Plan.  Such attorneys include private attorneys, the federal public defender, and staff attorneys of the federal public defender organization.
  • Resource Counsel. “CJA Resource Counsel” is an attorney designated by the federal public defender to administer the CJA
  1. Determination of Eligibility for CJA
  • Subject Matter Eligibility.

Representation must be provided for any financially eligible person who:

  • is charged with a felony or with a Class A misdemeanor;
  • is a juvenile alleged to have committed an act of juvenile delinquency as defined in 18 S.C. § 5031;
  • is charged with a violation of probation, or faces a change of a term or condition of probation (unless the modification sought is favorable to the probationer and the government has not objected to the proposed change);
  • is under arrest, when such representation is required by law;
  • is entitled to appointment of counsel in parole proceedings;
  • is charged with a violation of supervised release or faces modification, reduction, or enlargement of a condition, or extension or revocation of a term of supervised release;
  • is subject to a mental condition hearing under 18 S.C. chapter 313;
  • is in custody as a material witness;
  • is seeking to set aside or vacate a death sentence under 28 U.S.C. § 2254 or § 2255;
  • is entitled to appointment of counsel in verification of consent proceedings in connection with a transfer of an offender to or from the United States for the execution of a penal sentence under 18 S.C. § 4109;
  • is entitled to appointment of counsel under the Sixth Amendment to the Constitution; or
  • faces loss of liberty in a case and federal law requires the appointment of counsel.
  • Whenever a district judge or magistrate judge determines that the interests of justice so require, representation may be provided for any financially eligible person who:

(i)        is charged with a petty offense (Class B or C misdemeanor, or an infraction) for which a sentence to confinement is authorized; or

(ii)       is seeking relief under 28 U.S.C. §§ 2241, 2254, or 2255 other than to set aside or vacate a death sentence;

  • Counsel may be appointed under the CJA for a person charged with civil or criminal contempt who faces loss of liberty;
  • Counsel may be appointed upon application of a witness before a grand jury, a court, the Congress, or a federal agency or commission which has the power to compel testimony, counsel may be appointed where there is reason to believe, either prior to or during testimony, that the witness could be subject to a criminal prosecution, a civil or criminal contempt proceeding, or face loss of liberty;
  • Counsel may be appointed upon being advised by the United States Attorney or a law enforcement officer that they are the target of a grand jury investigation;
  • Counsel may be appointed for financially eligible persons proposed by the United States attorney for processing under a pretrial diversion program; or
  • Counsel may be appointed for persons held for international extradition under 18 S.C. chapter 209.
    • Ancillary

Representation may also be provided for financially eligible persons in ancillary matters appropriate to the criminal proceedings under 18 U.S.C. § 3006A(c). In determining whether representation in an ancillary matter is appropriate to the criminal proceedings, the Court should consider whether such representation is reasonably necessary to accomplish, among other things, one of the following objectives:

  • to protect a constitutional right;
  • to contribute in some significant way to the defense of the principal criminal charge;
  • to aid in preparation for the trial or disposition of the principal criminal charge;
  • to enforce the terms of a plea agreement in the principal criminal charge;
  • to preserve the claim of the CJA client to an interest in real or personal property subject to civil forfeiture proceeding under 18 S.C. § 983, 19 U.S.C. § 1602, 21 U.S.C. § 881, or similar statutes, which property, if recovered by the client, may be considered for reimbursement under 18. U.S.C. § 3006A(f); or
  • effectuate the return of real or personal property belonging to the CJA client, which may be subject to a motion for return of property under R. Crim. P. 41(g), which property, if recovered by the client, may be considered for reimbursement under 18 U.S.C. § 3006A(f).
  • Financial Eligibility.
  • Presentation of Accused for Financial Eligibility
  • Duties of Law
  • Upon arrest, and where the defendant has not retained or waived counsel, federal law enforcement officials must promptly notify, telephonically or electronically, the appropriate court personnel, who in turn will notify the federal public defender of the arrest of an individual in connection with a federal criminal
  • Employees of law enforcement agencies should not participate in the completion of the financial affidavit or seek to obtain information concerning financial eligibility from a person requesting the appointment of counsel.
  • Duties of United States Attorney’s

 

  • Upon the return or unsealing of an indictment or the filing of a criminal information, and where the defendant has not retained or waived counsel, the United States Attorney or their delegate will promptly notify, telephonically or electronically, appropriate court personnel, who in turn will notify the federal public defender.
  • Upon issuance of a target letter, and where the individual has not retained or waived counsel, the United States Attorney or their delegate must promptly notify, telephonically or electronically, the appropriate court personnel, who in turn will notify the federal public defender, unless the United States Attorney’s Office is aware of an actual or potential conflict with the target and the federal public defender, in which case they must promptly notify the court or CJA Resource Counsel.
  • Employees of the United States Attorney’s Office should not participate in the completion of the financial  affidavit or seek to obtain information concerning financial eligibility from a person requesting the appointment of
  • Duties of Federal Public Defender
  • In cases in which the federal public defender may be appointed, the office will:
  • immediately investigate and determine whether an actual or potential conflict exists; and
  • in the event of an actual or potential conflict, promptly facilitate the timely appointment of other counsel.
  • When practicable, the federal public defender will discuss with the person who indicates that he or she is not financially able to secure representation the right to appointed counsel and, if appointment of counsel seems likely, assist in the completion of a financial affidavit (Form CJA 23) and arrange to have the person promptly presented before a magistrate judge or district judge of this court for determination of financial eligibility and appointment of
  • Duties of Pretrial Services
  • When practicable, the pretrial services officer will not conduct the pretrial service interview of a financially eligible defendant until counsel has been appointed, unless the right to counsel is waived or the defendant otherwise consents to a pretrial service interview without
  • When counsel has been identified as being available for the appointment, or has been appointed, the pretrial services officer will provide counsel notice and a reasonable opportunity to attend any interview of the defendant by the pretrial services officer prior to the initial pretrial release or detention
  • Factual Determination of Financial
  • In every case where appointment of counsel is authorized under 18 S.C. § 3006A(a) and related statutes, the court must advise the person that he or she has a right to be represented by counsel throughout the case and that, if so desired, counsel will be appointed to represent the person if he or she is financially unable to obtain counsel.
  • The determination of eligibility for representation under the CJA is a judicial function to be performed by the court after making appropriate inquiries concerning the person’s financial Other employees of the court may be designated to obtain or verify the facts relevant to the financial eligibility determination.
  • In determining whether a person is “financially unable to obtain counsel,” consideration should be given to the cost of providing the person and his or her dependents with the necessities of life, the cost of securing pretrial release, asset encumbrance, and the likely cost of retained
  • The initial determination of eligibility must be made without regard to the financial ability of the person’s family to retain counsel unless their family indicates willingness and ability to do so
  • Any doubts about a person’s eligibility should be resolved in the person’s favor; erroneous determinations of eligibility may be corrected at a later
  • Relevant information bearing on the person’s financial eligibility should be reflected on a financial eligibility affidavit (Form CJA 23).
  • If at any time after the appointment of counsel a judge finds that a person provided representation is financially able to obtain counsel or make partial payment for the representation, the judge may terminate the appointment of counsel or direct that any funds available to the defendant be paid as provided in 18 S.C. § 3006A(f).
  • If at any stage of the proceedings a judge finds that a person is no longer financially able to pay retained counsel, counsel may be appointed in accordance with the general provisions set forth in this
  1. Timely Appointment of
  • Timing of

Counsel must be provided to eligible persons as soon as feasible in the following circumstances, whichever occurs earliest:

  • after they are taken into custody;
  • when they appear before a magistrate or district court judge;
  • when they are formally charged or notified of charges if formal charges are sealed; or
  • when a magistrate or district court judge otherwise considers appointment of counsel appropriate under the CJA and related

(B)       Court’s Responsibility.  The court, in cooperation with the federal public defender and the United States attorney, will make such arrangements with federal, state, and local investigative and police agencies as will ensure timely appointment of counsel.

  • Pretrial Service When practicable, unless the right to counsel is waived or the defendant otherwise consents to a pretrial service interview without counsel, financially eligible defendants will be provided appointed counsel prior to being interviewed by a pretrial services officer.
  • Retroactive Appointment of Appointment of counsel may be made retroactive to include representation provided prior to appointment.
  1. Provision of Representational
  • Federal Public Defender and Private This Plan provides for representational services by the federal public defender and for the appointment and compensation of private counsel from a CJA Panel list maintained by the federal public defender in cases authorized under the CJA and related statutes.
  • Administration of the CJA Panel, as set forth in this Plan, is hereby delegated and assigned to the federal public defender.
  • Apportionment of Cases. Where practical and cost effective, private attorneys from the CJA Panel will be appointed in a substantial proportion of the cases in which the accused is determined to be financially eligible for representation under the “Substantial” will usually be defined as a minimum of twenty-five percent (25%) of the annual CJA appointments.
  • Number of More than one attorney may be appointed in any case determined by the court to be extremely difficult.
  • Capital Cases. Procedures for appointment of counsel in cases where the defendant is charged with a crime that may be punishable by death, or is seeking to vacate or set aside a death sentence in proceedings under 28 S.C. §§ 2254 or 2255, are set forth in section XIV of this Plan.
  • Federal Public Defender
  • The federal public defender is established in this district under the CJA and is responsible for rendering defense services on appointment throughout this district. The federal public defender will provide legal services throughout the district, and shall maintain offices in Kansas City, Topeka, and Wichita.
  • The federal public defender organization must provide high quality representation consistent with the best practices of the legal profession and commensurate with those services rendered when counsel is privately retained.
  • The federal public defender organization will continually monitor the workloads of its staff to ensure high quality representation for all clients.
  • Professional Conduct. The federal public defender organization must conform to the highest standards of professional conduct, including but not limited to the American Bar Association’s Model Rules of Professional Conduct, the American Bar Association’s Model Code of Professional Conduct, and the Code of Conduct for Federal Public Defender
  • Private Practice of Law. Neither the federal public defender nor any defender employee may engage in the private practice of law except as authorized by the federal public defender Code of
  • Supervision of Defender The federal public defender will be responsible for the supervision and management of the federal public defender organization. Accordingly, the federal public defender will be appointed in all cases assigned to that organization for subsequent assignment to staff attorneys at the discretion of the federal public defender.
  • The federal public defender will assess the training needs of federal public defender staff and in coordination with the CJA Panel Attorney District Representative1 the training needs of the local panel attorneys, and provide training opportunities and other educational resources.
  • CJA Panel of Private
  • Establishment of the CJA Panel
    • A CJA Panel Committee (“CJA Committee”) will be established by the court in consultation with the federal public There will be a CJA Committee in Wichita, in Kansas City, and in Topeka. Each CJA Committee will consist of one district court judge, one magistrate judge, the federal public defender, the CJA Panel Attorney District Representative (PADR), and a CJA panel member who practices regularly in the district. Each committee will be chaired by a magistrate judge or district court judge.
    • The Chief Judge of the District and the CJA Resource Counsel will serve as ex officio members of the
  • Membership on the CJA Committee will otherwise be for a term of three years and may be extended for an additional three Members’ terms will be staggered to ensure continuity on the CJA Committee.
  • The CJA Committee will meet at least once a year and at any time the court asks the Committee to consider an

 

 

1 The CJA Panel Attorney District Representative (PADR) is a member of the district’s CJA Panel who is selected by the local federal public defender, with acquiescence from the chief judge, to serve as the representative of the district’s CJA Panel for the national Defender Services CJA PADR program and local CJA committees.

 

 

 

  • Duties of the CJA
  • Consider applications for the vacancies created by the terms expiring each year. Review the qualifications of each applicant and accept those applicants best qualified to fill the vacancies. Designate whether each attorney selected will serve on the General, Emeritus, or Training Panel.

If a Committee is reviewing and considering the application of a lawyer who is a member of that Panel Selection Committee, that lawyer must recuse himself or herself from consideration.

If at any time during the year, the number of vacancies significantly decreases the membership of the panel, the appropriate Committee will request that the CJA Resource Counsel solicit applications for the vacancies, convene a special meeting to review the qualifications of the applicants, and select new panel members.

All deliberations of the CJA Committee are confidential unless an exception is granted by the Chair of the Committee, upon good cause.

  • Engage in recruitment efforts to establish a diverse panel and ensure that all qualified attorneys are encouraged to participate in the furnishing of representation in CJA cases.
  • Annual Review the operation and administration of the CJA Panel over the preceding year, and recommend any necessary or appropriate changes concerning the appointment process and panel management. The Committees will endeavor to keep the processes and administration consistent throughout the district.
  • Removal

The Committee may remove any CJA panel member who:

  • fails to satisfactorily fulfill the requirements of CJA panel membership during their term of service, including the failure to provide high quality representation to CJA clients and to attend the required amount of Continuing Legal Education, or
  • engages in other conduct such that his or her continued service on the CJA Panel is inappropriate.

See also Section IX(C)(7).

  1. Establishment of a CJA
  • Approval of CJA Panel.
    • The existing, previously established panel of attorneys who are eligible and willing to be appointed to provide representation under the CJA is hereby
    • The CJA Committee will approve attorneys for membership on the CJA
    • There will be panels established in each location of Kansas City, Topeka, and The General Panel is for attorneys willing to regularly accept the target number of appointments throughout the year. The Emeritus Panel is for attorneys who are interested in handling fewer CJA cases, or who are interested in a special type of case. The Training Panel is for attorneys who have less federal criminal experience; preference will be given to attorneys who have completed the Federal Public Defender’s Second Chair Program.
  • Size of CJA Panel.
  • The size of the CJA Panel will be determined by the CJA Committee based on the caseload and activity of the panel members, subject to review by the
  • The CJA Panel shall be large enough to provide a sufficient number of experienced attorneys to handle the CJA caseload, yet small enough so that CJA panel members will receive an adequate number of appointments to maintain their proficiency in federal criminal defense work enabling them to provide high quality representation consistent with the best practices of the legal profession and commensurate with those services rendered when counsel is privately The target number of cases is six to eight cases per year.
  • Qualifications and Membership on the CJA Panel.
  • Application forms for membership on the CJA Panel are available from the Court’s website and the federal public defender website. Completed applications will be submitted electronically to the CJA Resource Counsel who will transmit the applications to each member of the Panel Selection Committees.
  • Equal All qualified attorneys are encouraged to participate in the furnishing of representation in CJA cases, without regard to race, color, religion, sex, age, national origin, sexual orientation, disability, ethnicity, ancestry, age, status as a veteran, marital status, parental status, gender identity,  gender expression, or genetic information.
  • Applicants for the CJA Panel must be members in good standing of the federal bar of this district and the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals.
  • Applicants must maintain a primary, satellite, or shared office in this district or in an adjacent district.
  • Applicants must possess strong litigation skills and demonstrate proficiency with the federal sentencing guidelines, federal sentencing procedures, the Bail Reform Act, the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, and the Federal Rules of Evidence.
  • Applicants must have significant experience representing persons charged with serious criminal offenses and demonstrate a commitment to the defense of people who lack the financial means to hire an attorney.
  • Attorneys who do not possess the experience set forth above but believe they have equivalent other experience are encouraged to apply and set forth in writing the details of that experience for the CJA Committee’s consideration.
  • Terms of CJA Panel To establish staggered CJA membership terms, the current CJA Panel will be divided into three groups, equal in number. Initially, members will be assigned to one of the three groups on a random basis.  Members of the first group will continue to serve on the CJA Panel for a term of one year, members of the second group will continue to  serve on the CJA Panel for a term of two years, and members of the third group will continue to serve on the CJA Panel for a term of three years. Thereafter, attorneys admitted to membership on the CJA Panel will each serve for a term of three years, subject to the reappointment procedures set forth in this plan. Each term begins on July 1.
  • Reappointment of CJA Panel
  • The federal public defender will notify CJA panel members, prior to the expiration of their current term, of the need to apply for reappointment to the CJA Panel.
  • A member of the CJA Panel who wishes to be considered for reappointment must apply for appointment to an additional term.
  • The CJA Committee will solicit input concerning the quality of representation provided by lawyers seeking reappointment.
  • The CJA Committee also will consider how many cases the CJA panel member has accepted and declined during the review period, whether the member has participated in training opportunities, whether the member has been the subject of any complaints, and whether the member continues to meet the prerequisites and obligations of CJA panel members as set forth in this
  • If reappointment is not granted, any existing CJA appointments shall continue until the representation is concluded.
  • Removal from the CJA Panel.
  • Mandatory removal. Any member of the CJA Panel who is suspended or disbarred from the practice of law by the state court before whom such member is admitted, or who is suspended or disbarred from this court or any federal court, will be removed from the CJA Panel Substitute counsel will be appointed for any CJA clients of the suspended or disbarred attorney.
  • Automatic disciplinary review. The CJA Committee will conduct an automatic disciplinary review of any CJA panel member against whom any licensing authority, grievance committee, or administrative body has taken action, or when a finding of probable cause, contempt, sanction, or reprimand has been issued against the panel member by any state or federal
    • A complaint against a panel member may be initiated by the CJA Committee, a judge, another panel member, a defendant, or a member of the federal public defender office. A complaint need not follow any particular form, but it must be in writing and state the alleged deficiency with specificity. Any complaint should be directed to the CJA Committee, which will determine whether further investigation is necessary.
  • When considering the removal of an attorney, the CJA Committee will notify the panel member of the specific allegations.
  • A panel member subject to removal consideration may respond in writing and appear, if so directed, before the CJA Committee.
  • Protective Prior to disposition of any complaint, the CJA Committee may recommend temporary suspension or removal of the panel member from any pending case, or from the panel, and may take any other protective action that is in the best interest of the client or the administration of this Plan.
  • Review and After consideration, the CJA Committee may recommend dismissing the complaint, or recommend appropriate remedial action and will determine whether the disciplined attorney should file motions to withdraw in any open CJA representations.
  • Unless otherwise directed by the chair of the committee, any information acquired concerning any possible disciplinary action, including any complaint and any related proceeding, will be confidential.
  • None of these procedures create a property interest in being on or remaining on the CJA
  • These provisions do not apply to a CJA Panel Attorney who seeks reappointment to the panel.
  • The federal public defender will be immediately notified when any member of the CJA Panel is removed or
  1. CJA Panel Attorney Appointment in Non-Capital
  • Appointment The federal public defender will maintain a current list of all attorneys included on the CJA Panel, with current office addresses, email addresses, and telephone numbers, as well as a statement of qualifications and experience.
  • Appointment Procedures.
    • The federal public defender is responsible for overseeing the appointment of cases to panel The federal public defender will maintain a record of panel attorney appointments and, when appropriate, data reflecting the apportionment of appointments between attorneys from the federal public defender office and panel attorneys.
    • Appointment of cases to CJA panel members will ordinarily be made on a rotational basis, subject to the discretion of the CJA Resource Counsel or the court to make exceptions due to the nature and complexity of the case, an attorney’s experience, and geographical
    • Under special circumstances the court may appoint a member of the bar of the court who is not a member of the CJA Such special circumstances may include cases in which the court determines that the appointment of a particular attorney is in the interests of justice, judicial economy, or continuity of representation, or for any other compelling reason. It is not anticipated that special circumstances will arise often, and the procedures set forth in the Plan are presumed to be sufficient in the vast majority of cases in which counsel are to be appointed.
    • Unless otherwise impracticable, CJA panel attorneys must be available to represent defendants at the same stage of the proceedings as is the federal public
  1. Duties of CJA Panel
  • Standards and Professional Conduct.
    • CJA panel members must provide high quality representation consistent with the best practices of the legal profession and commensurate with those services rendered when counsel is privately
    • Attorneys appointed under the CJA must conform to the highest standards of professional conduct, including but not limited to the Kansas Rules of Professional Conduct, the American Bar Association’s Model Rules of Professional Conduct, and the American Bar Association’s Model Code of Professional
    • CJA panel members must notify within 10 days the chair of the CJA Committee when any licensing authority, grievance committee, or administrative body has taken action against them, or when a finding of contempt, sanction, or reprimand has been issued against the panel member by any state or federal
  • Training and Continuing Legal Education.
  • Attorneys on the CJA Panel are expected to remain current with developments in federal criminal defense law, practice, and procedure, including the Recommendation for Electronically Stored Information (ESI) Discovery Production in Federal Criminal Cases.
  • Attorneys on the CJA Panel shall participate, annually, in at least six hours of continuing legal education provided by the federal public defender or equivalent training in federal criminal defense. The federal public defender will provide at least sixteen hours of continuing legal education each year. Attorneys shall notify the CJA Resource Counsel if federal criminal training other than through the federal public defender office is attended.
  • Attorneys on the CJA Panel will be guided in their practice by the Federal Adaptation of the National Legal Aid and Defender Association Performance Guidelines for Criminal Defense Representations.
  • Failure to comply with these training and legal education requirements may be grounds for removal from the CJA Panel.
  • Facilities and Technology Requirements.
  • CJA panel attorneys must have facilities, resources, and technological capability to effectively and efficiently manage assigned cases. CJA panel attorneys must comply with the requirements of electronic filing and eVoucher.
  • CJA panel attorneys must comply with the requirements of electronic filing and eVoucher.
  • CJA panel attorneys must know and abide by procedures related to requests for investigative, expert, and other services.
  • Continuing Representation. Once counsel is appointed under the CJA, counsel will continue the representation until the matter, including appeals (as governed by the Tenth Circuit’s CJA plan) or review by certiorari, is closed; or until substitute counsel has filed a notice of appearance; or until an order is entered allowing or requiring the person represented to proceed pro se; or until the appointment is terminated by court
  • Miscellaneous.
  • Case budgeting. In non-capital representations of unusual complexity that are likely to become extraordinary in terms of cost, the Court has ordered case budgeting. See Standing Order 16-3.
  • No receipt of other payment. Appointed counsel may not require, request, or accept any payment or promise of payment or any other valuable consideration for representation under the CJA, unless such payment is approved by order of the court.
  • Redetermination of need. If at any time after appointment, counsel has reason to believe that a party is financially able to obtain counsel, or make partial payment for counsel, and the source of counsel’s information is not protected as a confidential communication, counsel will advise the Court.
  • Compensation of CJA Panel
  • Policy of the Court Regarding Compensation. Providing fair compensation to appointed counsel is a critical component of the administration of justice. CJA panel attorneys must be compensated for time expended in court and time reasonably expended out of court, and reimbursed for expenses reasonably incurred.
  • Payment Procedures.
  • Claims for compensation must be submitted on the appropriate CJA form through the District of Kansas eVoucher system. Counsel are encouraged to submit interim vouchers, as allowed by the Court’s Standing Order 14-2.
  • Claims for compensation should be submitted no later than 45 days after final disposition of the case. Any voucher later than 180 days after final disposition of the case must be accompanied by a Statement of Exceptional Circumstances, setting forth the reasons for the late submission.
  • The federal public defender or her designee will review the claim for mathematical and technical accuracy and for conformity with Guide, Vol. 7A. CJA Resource Counsel will review the claim for reasonableness and will forward the claim for consideration and action by the presiding judge.
  • The court will exert its best effort to avoid delays in reviewing vouchers and in submitting them for further processing. Vouchers should not be delayed or reduced for the purpose of diminishing Defender Services program costs in response to adverse financial circumstances. See Guide to Judiciary Policy, Vol. 7A, § 230.33.
  • Except in cases involving mathematical corrections or claims that are not in conformity with the Act, no claim for compensation submitted for services provided under the CJA will be reduced without affording counsel notice and the opportunity to be heard. The notice to counsel may be made through the CJA Resource Counsel.
  • Investigative, Expert, and Other Services.
  • Financial Eligibility. Counsel for a person who is financially unable to obtain investigative, expert, or other services necessary for an adequate defense may request such services in an ex parte application to the Court as provided in 18 S.C. § 3006A(e)(1), regardless of whether counsel is appointed under the CJA. Upon finding that the services are necessary, and that the person is financially unable to obtain them, the Court must authorize counsel to obtain the services.
  • Pro Se Requests for Service Providers. Persons who are proceeding pro se may request investigative, expert, and other services available under 18 S.C. § 3006A(e)(1). These requests are reviewed by the Court in the same manner as requests made by CJA panel attorneys, although the Court shall first make a determination when appointment of counsel would be necessary, that the case is one in which the interests of justice would have required the furnishing of representation.
  • Applications. Requests for authorization of funds for investigative, expert, and other services must be submitted in an ex parte application to the Court (using the Court’s eVoucher system) and must not be disclosed except with the consent of the person represented or as required by law or Judicial Conference
  • Compliance. Counsel must comply with Judicial Conference policies set forth in Guide,  7A, Ch. 3.
  • Appointment of Counsel and Case Management in CJA Capital
  • Applicable Legal Authority. The appointment and compensation of counsel in capital cases and the authorization and payment of persons providing investigative, expert, and other services are governed by 18 S.C. §§ 3005, 3006A, and 3599, and Guide,  Vol. 7A, Ch. 6.
  • Number of Counsel. Under 18 S.C. § 3005, a person charged with a federal capital offense is entitled to the appointment of two attorneys, at least one of whom must be learned in the law applicable to capital cases. Under 18 U.S.C. § 3599(a)(1)(B), if necessary for adequate representation, more than two attorneys may be appointed to represent a defendant.

Under 18 U.S.C. § 3599(a)(2), a financially eligible person seeking to vacate or set aside a death sentence in proceedings under 28 U.S.C. §§ 2254 or 2255 is entitled to appointment of one or more qualified attorneys. Due to the  complex, demanding, and protracted nature of death penalty proceedings, judicial officers should consider appointing at least two counsel.

  • Qualifications.
  • Appointment of Counsel Prior to Judgment. Under 18 U.S.C. § 3599(b), at least one of the attorneys appointed must have been admitted to practice in the court in which the case will be prosecuted for not less than five years, and must have had not less than three years’ experience in the actual trial of felony prosecutions in that court. Under 18 U.S.C. § 3005, at least one of the attorneys appointed must be knowledgeable in the law applicable to capital cases.

Under 18 U.S.C. § 3005, in appointing counsel in federal capital prosecutions, the Court shall consider the recommendation of the federal public defender.

  • Appointment of Counsel after Judgment. Under 18 U.S.C. § 3599(c), at least one of the attorneys appointed must have been admitted to practice in the Court of Appeals for not less than five years, and must have had not less than three years’ experience in the handling of appeals in felony cases in the Court.
  • Attorney Qualification Under 18 U.S.C. § 3599(d), the presiding judicial officer, for good cause, may appoint an attorney who may not qualify under 18 U.S.C. § 3599(b) or (c), but who has the background, knowledge, and experience necessary to represent the defendant properly in a capital case, giving due consideration to the seriousness of the possible penalty and the unique and complex nature of the litigation.
  • Representation in State Death Penalty Habeas Corpus Proceedings Under 28 U.S.C. 2254. The Court will appoint the federal public defender (with her consent) or a qualified attorney recommended by the federal public defender, or other attorney who qualifies for appointment under 18 U.S.C. § 3599 to represent financially eligible persons seeking habeas corpus relief in state death penalty proceedings under 28 U.S.C. § 2254. In appropriate cases, preference ought to be given to transferring these cases to one of the Capital Habeas Units established within the District.
  • General Applicability and Appointment of Counsel Requirements.
    • Unless otherwise specified, the provisions set forth in this section apply to all capital proceedings in the federal courts, whether those matters originated in a district court (federal capital trials) or in a state court (habeas proceedings under 28 U.S.C. § 2254). Such matters include those in which the death penalty may be or is being sought by the prosecution, motions for a new trial, direct appeal, applications for a writ of certiorari to the Supreme Court of the United States, all post- conviction proceedings under 28 U.S.C. §§ 2254 or 2255 seeking to vacate or set aside a death sentence, applications for stays of execution, competency proceedings, proceedings for executive or other clemency, and other appropriate motions and
    • Any person charged with a crime that may be punishable by death who is or becomes financially unable to obtain representation is entitled to the assistance of appointed counsel throughout every stage of available judicial proceedings, including pretrial proceedings, trial, sentencing, motions for new trial, appeals, applications for writ of certiorari to the Supreme Court of the United States, and all available post-conviction processes, together with applications for stays of execution and other appropriate motions and procedures, competency proceedings, and proceedings for executive or other clemency as may be available to the See 18 U.S.C. § 3599(e).
    • Qualified counsel must be appointed in capital cases at the earliest possible
    • Given the complex and demanding nature of capital cases, where appropriate, the court will utilize the expert services available through the Administrative Office of the United States Courts (AO), Defender Services Death Penalty Resource Counsel projects (“Resource Counsel projects”) which include: (1) Federal Death Penalty Resource Counsel and Capital Resource Counsel Projects (for federal capital trials), (2) Federal Capital Appellate Resource Counsel Project, (3) Federal Capital Habeas 2255 Project, and (4) National and Regional Habeas Assistance and Training Counsel Projects (§ 2254). These counsel are death penalty experts who may be relied upon by the court for assistance with selection and appointment of counsel, case budgeting, and legal, practical, and other matters arising in federal capital cases.
    • The federal public defender should promptly notify and consult with the appropriate Resource Counsel projects about potential and actual federal capital trial, appellate, and habeas corpus cases, and consider their recommendations for appointment of
    • The presiding judge may appoint an attorney furnished by a state or local public defender organization or legal aid agency or other private, non-profit organization to represent a person charged with a capital crime or seeking federal death penalty habeas corpus relief provided that the attorney is fully Such appointments may be in place of, or in addition to, the appointment of a federal defender organization or a CJA panel attorney or an attorney appointed pro hac vice. See 18 U.S.C. § 3006A(a)(3).
    • All attorneys appointed in federal capital cases must be well qualified, by virtue of their training, commitment, and distinguished prior capital defense experience at the relevant stage of the proceeding, to serve as counsel in this highly specialized and demanding
    • All attorneys appointed in federal capital cases must have sufficient time and resources to devote to the representation, taking into account their current caseloads and the extraordinary demands of federal capital
    • All attorneys appointed in federal capital cases should comply with the

 American Bar Associa tion’s 2003 Guideli nes f o r the App oint men t and

Performance of Defense Counsel in Death Penalty Cases (Guidelines

and 10.2 et seq.), and the 2008 Supplementary Guidelines for the Mitigation Function of Defense Teams in Death Penalty Cases.

  • All attorneys appointed in federal capital cases should consult regularly with the appropriate Resource Counsel
  • Questions about the appointment and compensation of counsel and the authorization and payment of investigative, expert, and other service providers in federal capital cases should be directed to the AO Defender Services Office, Legal and Policy Division Duty Attorney at 202-502-3030 or via email at ods_lpb@ao.uscourts.gov.
  • Appointment of Trial Counsel in Federal Death-Eligible Cases.2
  • General
  • Appointment of qualified capital trial counsel must occur no later than when a defendant is charged with a federal criminal offense where the penalty of death is possible. See 18 U.S.C. 3005.
  • To protect the rights of an individual who, although uncharged, is the subject of an investigation in a federal death-eligible case, the court may appoint capitally-qualified counsel upon request, consistent with Sections C.1, 2, and 3 of these provisions.
  • At the outset of every capital case, the court must appoint two attorneys, at least one of whom meets the qualifications for “learned counsel” as described below. If necessary for adequate representation, more than two attorneys may be appointed to represent a defendant in a capital case. See 18 U.S.C. § 3005.
  • When appointing counsel, the judge must consider the recommendation of the federal public defender/community defender, who will consult with Federal Death Penalty Resource Counsel to recommend qualified counsel. See 18 U.S.C. § 3005.
  • To effectuate the intent of 18 U.S.C. § 3005 that the federal public defender/community defender’s recommendation be provided to the court, the judge should ensure the federal public defender has been notified of the need to appoint capitally-qualified counsel.
  • Reliance on a list for appointment of capital counsel is not recommended because selection of trial counsel should account for the particular needs of the case and the defendant, and be based on individualized recommendations from the federal public defender in conjunction with the Federal Death Penalty Resource Counsel and Capital Resource Counsel projects.

 

 

 

 

2 The Judicial Conference adopted detailed recommendations on the appointment and compensation of counsel in federal death penalty cases in 1998 (JCUS-SEP 98, p. 22). In September 2010, the Defender Services Committee endorsed revised commentary to the Judicial Conference’s 1998 recommendations. CJA Guidelines, Vol. 7A, Appx. 6A (Recommendations and Commentary  Concerning the Cost and Quality of Defense Representation (Updated Spencer Report, September  2010)) (“Appx. 6A”) is available on the judiciary’s website.

 

 

  • Out-of-district counsel, including federal defender organization staff, who possess the requisite expertise may be considered for appointment in capital trials to achieve high quality representation together with cost and other efficiencies.
  • In evaluating the qualifications of proposed trial counsel, consideration should be given to their commitment to the defense of capital cases, their current caseload including other capital cases, and their willingness to effectively represent the interests of the client.
  • Qualifications of Learned Counsel
  • Learned counsel must either be a member of this district’s bar or be eligible for admission pro hac vice based on his or her qualifications. Appointment of counsel from outside the jurisdiction is common in federal capital cases to achieve cost and other efficiencies together with high quality representation.
  • Learned counsel must meet the minimum experience standards set forth in 18 S.C. §§ 3005 and 3599.
  • Learned counsel should have distinguished prior experience in the trial, appeal, or post-conviction review of federal death penalty cases, or distinguished prior experience in state death penalty trials, appeals, or post-conviction review that, in combination with co-counsel, will assure high quality representation.
  • “Distinguished prior experience” contemplates excellence, not simply prior experience. Counsel with distinguished prior experience should be appointed even if meeting this standard requires appointing counsel from outside the district where the matter arises.
  • The suitability of learned counsel should be assessed with respect to the particular demands of the case, the stage of the litigation, and the defendant.
  • Learned counsel must be willing and able to adjust other caseload demands to accommodate the extraordinary time required by the capital representation.
  • Learned counsel should satisfy the qualification standards endorsed by bar associations and other legal organizations regarding the quality of representation in capital cases.
  • Qualifications of Second and Additional Counsel.
  • Second and additional counsel may, but are not required to, satisfy the qualifications for learned counsel, as set forth above.
  • Second and additional counsel must be well qualified, by virtue of their distinguished prior criminal defense experience, training and commitment, to serve as counsel in this highly specialized and demanding litigation.
  • Second and additional counsel must be willing and able to adjust other caseload demands to accommodate the extraordinary time required by the capital representation.
  • The suitability of second and additional counsel should be assessed with respect to the demands of the individual case, the stage of the litigation, and the defendant.
  • Appointment and Qualifications of Direct Appeal Counsel in Federal Death Penalty Cases.
  • When appointing appellate counsel, the judge must consider the recommendation of the federal public defender, who will consult with Federal Capital Appellate Resource Counsel to recommend qualified counsel.
  • Counsel appointed to represent a death-sentenced federal appellant should include at least one attorney who did not represent the appellant at trial.
  • Each trial counsel who withdraws should be replaced with similarly qualified counsel to represent the defendant on appeal.
  • Out-of-district counsel, including federal defender organization staff, who possess the requisite expertise may be considered for appointment in capital appeals to achieve high quality representation together with cost and other
  • Appellate counsel, between them, should have distinguished prior experience in federal criminal appeals and capital appeals.
  • At least one of the attorneys appointed as appellate counsel must have the requisite background, knowledge, and experience required by 18 S.C. § 3599(c) or (d).
  • In evaluating the qualifications of proposed appellate counsel, consideration should be given to the qualification standards endorsed by bar associations and other legal organizations regarding the quality of legal representation in capital cases.
  • In evaluating the qualifications of proposed appellate counsel, consideration should be given to their commitment to the defense of capital cases, their current caseload including other capital cases, and their willingness to effectively represent the interests of the client.
  • Appointment and Qualifications of Post-Conviction Counsel in Federal Death Penalty Cases (28 S.C. § 2255).
  • A financially eligible person seeking to vacate or set aside a death sentence in proceedings under 28 U.S.C. § 2255 is entitled to appointment of fully qualified counsel. See 18 U.S.C. § 3599(a)(2).
  • Due to the complex, demanding, and protracted nature of death penalty proceedings, the court should consider appointing at least two attorneys.
  • In light of the accelerated timeline applicable to capital § 2255 proceedings, prompt appointment of counsel is essential. Wherever possible, appointment should take place prior to the denial of certiorari on direct appeal by the United States Supreme Court.
  • When appointing counsel in a capital § 2255 matter, the court should consider the recommendation of the federal public defender, who will consult with the Federal Capital Habeas § 2255 Project.
  • Out-of-district counsel, including federal defender organization staff, who possess the requisite expertise may be considered for appointment in capital § 2255 cases to achieve high quality representation together with cost and other efficiencies.
  • Counsel in § 2255 cases should have distinguished prior experience in the area of federal post-conviction proceedings and in capital post- conviction proceedings.
  • When possible, post-conviction counsel should have distinguished prior experience in capital § 2255 representations.
  • In evaluating the qualifications of proposed post-conviction counsel, consideration should be given to the qualification standards endorsed by bar associations and other legal organizations regarding the quality of legal representation in capital cases.
  • In evaluating the qualifications of proposed post-conviction § 2255 counsel, consideration should be given to their commitment to the defense of capital cases, their current caseload including other capital cases, and their willingness to effectively represent the interests of the client.
  • Appointment and Qualifications of Counsel in Federal Capital Habeas Corpus Proceedings (28 S.C. § 2254).
  • A financially eligible person seeking to vacate or set aside a death sentence in proceedings under 28 U.S.C. § 2254 is entitled to the appointment of qualified counsel. See 18 U.S.C. § 3599(a)(2).
  • Due to the complex, demanding, and protracted nature of death penalty proceedings, the court should consider appointing at least two attorneys.
  • When appointing counsel in a capital § 2254 matter, the appointing authority should consider the recommendation of the federal public defender who will consult with the National or Regional Habeas Assistance and Training Counsel projects.
  • Out-of-district counsel, including federal defender organization staff, who possess the requisite expertise may be considered for appointment in capital § 2254 cases to achieve cost and other efficiencies together with high quality representation.
  • In order for federal counsel to avail themselves of the full statute of limitations period to prepare a petition, the court should appoint counsel and provide appropriate litigation resources at the earliest possible time permissible by law.
  • Unless precluded by a conflict of interest, or replaced by similarly qualified counsel upon motion by the attorney or motion by the defendant, capital § 2254 counsel must represent the defendant throughout every subsequent stage of available judicial proceedings and all available post-conviction processes, together with applications for stays of execution and other appropriate motions and procedures, and must also represent the defendant in such competency proceedings and proceedings for executive or other clemency as may be available to the defendant. See 18 U.S.C. § 3599(e).
  • Counsel in capital § 2254 cases should have distinguished prior experience in the area of federal post-conviction proceedings and in capital post-conviction proceedings.
  • When possible, capital § 2254 counsel should have distinguished prior experience in capital § 2254 representations.
  • In evaluating the qualifications of proposed capital § 2254 counsel, consideration should be given to the qualification standards endorsed by bar associations and other legal organizations regarding the quality of legal representation in capital cases.
  • In evaluating the qualifications of proposed capital § 2254 counsel, consideration should be given to proposed counsel’s commitment to the defense of capital cases, their current caseload including other capital cases, and their willingness to represent effectively the interests of the client.

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NOTE:  This is a mandated rule.

As amended 3/17/18,  3/17/13, 3/17/09, 10/22/98, 2/2/95.

U.S. Federal Court District of Kansas